মঙ্গলবার, ২১ জুলাই, ২০০৯

Small Scale Dairy Farming Practice in Bangladesh

Abstract: The present study was assigned to determine the present status including general information,
feeding breeding housing milking etc. and costs & returns of small dairy farms, to compare the productive
and reproductive performance of crossbred and indigenous cows and to make recommendation for
development of small scales dairy farm. With this view, the empirical data were collected by using protested
questionnaire. The study was conducted at 8 thanas in Rangpur district, and four months-long survey was
diminished on thirty small dairy owners. It appeared from the study that 57% farm owners belong to business
class and remaining 43 per cent to different categories. Fifty three per cent took dairying as a side-business
whereas only 47 per cent took it as a main business enterprise. Major percentage of farm owner education
level that was Higher Secondary level (60%) and the average number of animal per farm was 13.01. The
average monthly income of farm owners found in the study area was Tk. 4387. It was observed that farm
owners had 85.4% crossbred (like Friesian cross and Jersey cross) and was 14.6% indigenous cattle, and
87% farmers used artificial insemination and rest used both artificial and natural services. Daily milk
yield/cow/farm was 4.27 and 1.78 liters for a crossbred and indigenous dairy cow, respectively. It was
estimated that the rearing cost of dairy cow was Tk. 67.5/cow/day and return from rearing dairy cow was Tk.
85.2/cow/day. The net return was Tk. 17.7/cow/day from crossbred in the study area and cost benefit ratio
was 1: 1.26. The study showed that there were significant (P<0.01) differences within the dry period, service
per conception, calving to first service, highest and lowest milk production and lactation period of crossbred
and indigenous dairy cows. The study also showed non-significant differences within calving interval for
crossbred and indigenous. Incase of small dairy farming, the farms were facing a lot of problems such as
scarcity of feeds and fodder, high price of concentrate and lack of technical knowledge. Although the dairy
cow owners face problems, the study observed that there were potentials particularly for the small dairy
farmers. The small farmers by keeping 8-10 crossbred cows could earn a modest living by adopting small
dairy farming as a profession.

Cattle population in Bangladesh is about 24.13 million
In the rural area, cattle are kept mainly for
draught purpose. Only a limited number of farmers have
cow for milk production. Maximum cattle are nondescriptive
type, which do not belong to any specific
breed and termed as indigenous cattle. These animals
are kept mainly in the stall with limited grazing on the
roadside, embankment slope, fallow land and paddy
straw are their staple food. Husbandry practices and
health care of these animals are poor (Jabbar and
Raha, 1984). The average milk production of local cows
is very low and it varies between 300 to 400 liters per
lactation period of 180 to 240 days. Such low productivity
of indigenous cows is an important constraint for future
development of the livestock sector. High productive
exotic breeds and their crosses normally do not have
adequate resistance against the prevalent diseases.
They do not thrive well in our environment. In spite of all
these problems, some people have shown interest for
development of small dairy farms. Generally crossbred
cows under village condition yields 600 to 800 liters
milk per lactation of 210 to 240 days (Islam, 1992).
Bangladesh suffers from an acute shortage of livestock
products like milk, meat and eggs. The domestic
demand for milk has been rising faster than the
domestic production of milk. Hence Bangladesh
Government has given the priority on the development
dairying at farmers level to increase the supply of milk
from small dairy farms.
In Rangpur district area, small and large scale dairy
farms have been increasing day by day. Specially low
income group of people has taken this farming
profitable enterprise. In order to establish future plan for
dairy development in this region, it is essential to know
details about the management practices and
performances of different types of dairy breeds.

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